Blepharospasm is the involuntary, forcible closure of the eyelids. The symptoms may be uncontrollable blinking.
Only one eye may be affected initially, but eventually both eyes are usually involved.
The spasms may leave the eyelids completely closed, causing functional blindness even though the eyes and vision are normal. Blephaospasm is a form of focal Dystonia.
It is a Toxin produced by the Bacterium clostridium Botulinum. It is available commercially for various medical procedures and used to treat the following Neurological diseases:
* Chronic Migraine headaches
* Limb spasticity
* Cervical dystopia
* Facial spasm
Cervical Dystonia is characterized by excessive pulling of the muscles of the neck and shoulder.
The excessive pulling causes the head to turn or tilt involuntarily. Most commonly the head turns to one side or the other. Tilting sideways, or to the back or front may also occur.
Often, the turning and tilting movements are accompanied by jerky or wobbly movements known as tremor.
Also common is soreness and pain of the muscles of the neck and shoulders.
Migraine is a complex condition with a wide variety of symptoms.
Other symptoms include disturbed vision, sensitivity to light, sound and smells, feeling sick and vomiting. Migraines can be very frightening and may result in you having to lie still for several hours.
The symptoms will vary from one person to another and individuals may have different symptoms during different attacks. Your attacks may differ in length and frequency.
Migraines usually last from 4 to 72 hours and most people are free from symptoms between attacks. Migraines can have an enormous impact on your work, family and social lives..
It is a Neurosurgical procedure whereby two electrodes are implanted in selected brain regions and connected to a Pace-Maker like device in the chest which sends electrical impulses through the electrodes for the treatment of the following movement disorders:
* Parkinson's disease
* Essential tremor
Essential tremor is a nervous system (neurological) disorder that causes involuntary and rhythmic shaking. It can affect almost any part of your body, but the trembling occurs most often in your hands — especially when you do simple tasks, such as drinking from a glass or tying shoelaces.
Hyperhydrosis is excessive sweating that occurs even when the temperature isn't hot and you're not exercising.
Spasticity is an increase in the muscle tone. It can be seen in patients with Cerebral Palsy, traumatic injury, Stroke, Multiple Sclerosis and Spinal Cord injury.
Parkinson's disease is a progressively degenerative neurological disorder which affects control of body movements.
The symptoms of Parkinson's disease appear when about 70% of dopamine producing cells cease to function normally.
Symptoms develop slowly and gradually progress over years, but are greatly helped by drug treatment.
The presentation of symptoms varies greatly between individuals diagnosed and no two people will be affected in the same way.
The three symptoms used for diagnostic procedures are:
* Tremor, (shaking, trembling) is the most well-known symptom of PD, but is absent in one third of people when the condition is first diagnosed. Tremor usually begins in one hand and spreads to the leg, before crossing to the other side. It may also be felt internally. Typically it is most noticeable at rest and when stressed or tired and disappears during movement and when asleep.
* Rigidity or stiffness of the muscle is very common early sign of PD whereby the muscles seem unable to relax and are tight, even at rest.
* Bradykinesia (slowness of movement) occurs because the brain is not able to control smooth and delicate movements.
Other symtoms include slowness of thinking and memory problems and tiredness and disturbed sleep to name a few.
Sialorrhea or hyper-salivation (or excess salivation): Is a result of either the excessive production of saliva or the decreased clearance of saliva.
Neurologically the second cause is most likely to be the case of the Sialorrhea.
Diseases such as Parkinson's and strokes among others can lead to Sialorrhea and for which Botox treatment can be applied